## 1 August 2011

### LIST OF TERMS IN PHYSICS

CHAPTER SIX (WAVES)

 ITEM MEANING / DEFINITION Wave motionPerambatan gelombang Wave motion carries energy from one place to another place in a medium without the transfer of the particles along the medium. WavefrontMuka Gelombang A wavefront is a line or plane where the vibrations of every point on it are in phase Transverse waveGelombang Melintang A wave in which the vibration of particles in the medium is at perpendicular to the direction of propagation of the wave. Longitudinal waveGelombang Membujur A wave in which the vibration of particles in the medium is parallel to the direction of propagation of the wave. AmplitudeAmplitud The maximum displacement from its equilibrium position. PeriodTempoh The time taken to make one complete oscillation Frequency, fFrekuensi The number of complete oscillations made by a vibrating system in one second One complete oscillationSatu ayunan lengkap A complete oscillation may be referred as the movement of a vibrating system from one extreme position to the other and back to the same position. Wavelength, λPanjang gelombang The wavelength is the distance between successive points of the same phase in a wave. DampingPelembapan Damping occurs when an oscillating system loses energy due to frictional forces. Forced oscillationAyunan paksa Forced oscillation occurs when a system oscillates under the influence of an external driving force. Natural frequencyFrekuensi asli The frequency of a system when it oscillates freely. ResonanceResonans Resonance occurs when a system oscillates at the maximum amplitude when the driving frequency is equal to the natural frequency of the system. Reflection of wavesPantulan gelombang Reflection of waves is the change in direction of propagation when a wave strikes an obstacle. Incident wavesGelombang Tuju The waves moving towards an obstacle. Reflected waveGelombang Pantulan The wave which has undergone a change in direction of propagation after reflection. Angle of incidenceSudut Tuju The angle between the direction of propagation of the incident wave and the normal Angle of reflectionSudut pantulan The angle between the direction of propagation of reflected wave and the normal. Law of ReflectionHukum Pantulan The angle of incidence is equal to the angle of reflection Refraction of wavesPembiasan Gelombang Refraction is the change of direction of propagation when the speed of a wave changes as it moves from one medium to another Diffraction of wavePembelauan Gelombang Diffraction of waves is the spreading of waves as they pass through an aperture or around the edge of an obstacle Principle of superpositionPrinsip superposisi The sum of the displacements of all the component waves at the point. Coherent wavesGelombang Koheren Waves of the same frequency and are in phase. InterferenceInterferens Superposition of two coherent waves constructively or destructively Constructive interferenceInterferens membina Occurs when two waves that are in phase superimposeto produce a wave with crests and troughs of maximum amplitude. Destructive interferenceInterferens memusnah Occurs when two waves that are out of phase superimpose to produce zero resultant amplitude AntinodeAntinod A point where constructive interference occurs. NodeNod A point where destructive interference occurs. Sound waveGelombang bunyi Sounds are longitudinal waves produced by vibrations such as the vibrations of the diaphragm of a loudspeaker, guitar string and tuning fork. LoudnessKenyaringan The intensity of a sound as heard by an observer  (depends on the amplitude of the sound) PitchKelangsingan The pitch of the sound is an indication of the sharpness of a sound (depends on the frequency of the sound) SONAR Sound Navigation and Ranging (SONAR) is a system used to detect underwater objects or to determine the depth of the water by means of an echo. Electromagnetic wavesGelombang elektromagnet Electromagnetic waves are propagating waves in space with electric and magnetic components.

CHAPTER SEVEN (ELECTRICITY)

 ITEM MEANING / DEFINITION Current Arus Current is the rate of flow of electric charge Ampere, A SI unit of current Coulomb, C A unit of charge Electric fieldMedan elektrik An electric field is a region where an electric force acts on a particle with an electric charge. Potential DifferenceBeza keupayaan Potential difference is defined as the work done to move a unit of charge from one point to another in an electric field. Ohm’s LawHukum Ohm The electric current flowing through a conductor is directly proportional to the potential difference across the ends of the conductor, if the temperature and other physical dimensions remain constant. Ohmic ConductorKonduktor Ohm Material which obey Ohm’s Law Non Ohmic ConductorKonduktor bukan Ohm Material which do not obey Ohm’s Law ResistanceRintangan Resistance is defined as (potential difference)/(current) Effective ResistanceRintangan berkesan The effective resistance is the combined resistance in the circuit. Electromotive Force (e.m.f)Daya gerak elektrik (d.g.e.) The total energy supplied by a cell when one unit of charge flows through the cell. Internal ResistanceRintangan dalam The resistance within a cell due to its electrolyte or electrodes Electrical EnergyTenaga elektrik Energy supplied by a source of electricity (cell / battery) when current flows in a closed circuit. PowerKuasa Power is the rate of transfer of electrical energy Power RatingKadar kuasa The power rating of an appliance denotes the rate at which it consumes electrical energy at a certain voltage

CHAPTER EIGHT (ELECTROMAGNETISM)

 ITEM MEANING / DEFINITION ElectromagnetElektromagnet An electromagnet is a device in which magnetism is produced by an electric current. It is a temperory magnet. It acts as a magnet when the current is flow and ceases to be a magnet when the current is switched off. Magnetic fieldMedan magnet A magnetic field is a region in which a magnetic materials experiences a force. Catapult fieldMedan lastik The resultant field produced when a straight wire carries a current in a uniform magnetic field. Direct current motorMotor arus terus A direct current motor is used to convert electrical energy into rotational kinetic energy. Electromagnetic inductionAruhan elektromagnet The production of an electromotive force in a conductor due to a changing magnetic flux. Induced e.m.f.D.g.e. teraruh An emf produced in a conductor when there is a changing magnetic flux or cutting of magnetic flux by the conductor Induced currentArus teraruh Induced current is produced in a circuit when there is a changing magnetic flux or cutting of magnetic flux by a conductor Faraday's lawHukum Faraday The magnitude of the induced e.m.f  is directly proportional to the rate at which a conductor cuts through the magnetic flux. Lenz's lawHukum Lenz Lenz's Law state that an induced electric current always flows in such a direction as to oppose the change in magnetic flux. Direct currentArus terus Current which flows in one direction. Alternating currentArus ulang alik Current which flows back and forth in two opposite directions TransformerTransformer A device which steps up or steps down the voltage of an alternating current. Step-up transformerTransformer injak naik A transformer that steps up voltage Step-down transformerTransformer injak turun A transformer that steps down voltage Ideal transformerTransformer unggul A transformer where the output power is equal to the input power and the efficiency is 100% Transmission of electricityPenghantaran elektrik The transmission of electricity from the power station to consumers (industries and residential areas) by electric cables National Grid NetworkRangkaian Grid Nasional The national grid is a network of electrical cables connecting electrical power stations to consumers of electricity.

CHAPTER NINE (ELECTRONICS)

 ITEM MEANING / DEFINITION Thermionic emissionPemancaran termionik A process of emitting electrons from a hot metal surface. Cathode raySinar katod A beam of fast moving, high energy electrons SemiconductorSemikonduktor Materials whose resistance is between those of good conductors and good insulators. DopingPendopan The process of adding a small amount of impurities into the semiconductors. n-type semiconductorSemikonduktor jenis-n Semiconductor where the majority charge carriers are free electrons p-type semiconductorSemikonduktor jenis-p Semiconductor where the majority charge carriers are holes Semiconductor diodeDiod semikonduktor A p-n junction device which conducts current in one direction only Forward-biasedPincang ke hadapan A diode is forward biased when the p-end is connected to the positive terminal of the battery and the n-end is connected to the negative terminal of the battery. Reverse-biasedPincang songsang A diode is reverse biased when the p-end is connected to the negative terminal of the battery and the n-end is connected to the positive terminal of the battery. RectificationRektifikasi To convert alternating current into direct current using diodes Half-wave rectificationRektifikasi separuh gelombang The process of rectification using a diode which allows current flow in half of a cycle. Full-wave rectificationRektifikasi penuh gelombang The process of rectification using four diodes to allow current to flow in a complete cycle and in the same direction. Smoothing CapacitorKapasitor perata A capacitor that is used to smoothen the output voltage of a rectification process n-p-n transistorTransistor n-p-n A transistor which consists of a layer of p-type semiconductor sandwiched between two layers of n-type semiconductors. p-n-p transistorTransistor p-n-p A transistor which consists of a layer of n-type semiconductor sandwiched between two layers of p-type semiconductors. Logic gateGet logik A logic gate is an electronic switch with one or more inputs  and only one output. Truth tableJadual kebenaran A truth table shows the results of every possible output given every possible input. AND gateGet DAN A logic gate where the output is 1 only when both inputs are 1 NOT gateGet TAK A logic gate that inverts the input Or gateGet ATAU A logic gate where the Output is 1 except when both inputs are 0